A colposcopy is an in-office, noninvasive procedure to examine your vagina and cervix. The colposcope is positioned outside your vagina. By looking through the scope, your doctor gets a magnified view of the tissues lining your vagina and cervix. Your doctor may perform a colposcopy to diagnose the cause of abnormal bleeding or to look for signs of inflammation, polyps, or genital warts. However, a colposcopy is most often done when the results of a Pap smear indicate abnormal cellular changes.